Marijuana - Ways of use marijuana
Ways of use marijuana
As the substances marijuana and hashish can be taken in many ways. It is known, for example, that few centuries ago these substances were taken in the form of liquids or in the form of food. In addition, the psychoactive effects of marijuana can be tested by chewing the hemp leaves. Nevertheless, the most popular way of use marijuana is smoking, usually in the form of cigarettes. Inhalation of cigarette smoke from marijuana is the most effective way of absorption of marijuana.
Psychoactive effects of marijuana
The main psychoactive effects of marijuana is the result of the impact of the drug on neurotransmitters. The most studies in this field are focused on the effects of marijuana on the chemical neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. THC in relatively small doses reduces methabolism of acetylcholine, particularly in hippocampus area, which leads to decreased activity of this neurotransmitter. Besides, THC promotes release of another neurotransmitter - serotonin. The latest discovery of the THC receptors of the brain opened the new opportunities for exploring brain path ways involved in the actions of cannabinoids and searching for the chemical substances produced by the body which interact with the cannabioid receptors. Later, a group of scientists discovered the presence of natural chemicals in the body called anandamides (from the word "bliss" in Sanskrit) that operate on the same receptors of the brain as cannabinoids and take part in processes of pain and mood regulations.
Tolerance and cannabis dependence
Tolerance to cannabis has been confirmed by numerous experiments on the animals. Nevertheless, tolerance to cannabis for humans is less clear, since some studies suggest its presence, while others don’t Some differences in human tolerance to cannabis can be attributed to dose and duration of marijuana use. Most likely tolerance is caused by large doses of marijuana and its use over long period of time.
Physical cannabis dependence is very rare. In accordance with the data, any significant withdrawal syndrome was not observed. There are no indications for abstinence syndrome, which is the case for other substances such as alcohol or heroin. Aspects of cannabis dependence in case of long-term abuse primarily manifest in such symptoms as sleep disorders, nausea, irritability and restlessness. Some experts argue that these symptoms are more related to psychological dependence. Nevertheless, physical dependence is not obvious. Existing cases of physical withdrawal are related to very high doses of marijuana taken over long period of time. However, some people really get physically dependent on marijuana, and the mechanism of this relationship remains unclear.
Side effects of marijuana - Nausea and vomiting
Cannabis and synthetic THC are often used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy to treat cancer. These side effects of marihuana may last from several hours to several days and often cant be alleviated by traditional antiemetic drugs.
Systematic studies of the antiemetic effects of THC started in 1970 after the stories of the patients who reported that their own use of marijuana helped them to alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy.
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